WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY AS WELL AS TAKING CARE ABOUT CONDUCT IN HIS PRIVATE LIFE, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO PROTECT RESPECT AND TO STRUGGLE FOR PROMOTION AND AFFIRMATION OF LEGAL PROFESSION AS AN INDEPENDENT PROFESSION. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ACT IN HUMAN WAY, RESPECTING DIGNITY OF ALL HE CONTACTS WITH. THEN, HE IS OBLIGED TO PRESERVE HIS HONOUR, MORAL CHARACTER, INDEPENDENCE AND EXPERTNESS IN ORDER TO STIMULATE OTHERS WITH HIS CONDUCT. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO RESPECT TRUTH AND LEGALITY, INDEPENDENCE OF LEGAL PROFESSION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ENERGETICALLY REJECT ALL TRIES OF INFLUENCE ON HIS INDEPENDENCE IN EXECUTION OF ACTIVITY. HE IS OBLIGED TO INFORM ORGANS OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION ABOUT THESE TRIES. EXECUTION OF ANY COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS, ASSOCIATION OFLAWYERS OFFICES WITH ACTIVITIES OF SUCH EFFECT, I.E. ACTIVITIES THAT DO NOT GIVE LEGAL AID ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH EXECUTION OF LAWYERS ACTIVITY. OBLIGATION OF A LAWYER IS TO BE CONSTANTLY UNDER PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT, TO READ PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE,PARTICIPATE IN ALL PROFESSIONAL DISCUSSIONS, CONSULTATIONS, AND CONGRESSES, IN ALL ACTIONS OF LEGAL PROFESSIONS BY WHICH IMPROVEMENT AND AFFIRMATION OF THIS SERVICE ARE ACHIEVED, AND TO IMPROVE HIS GENERAL EDUCATION. A LAWYER HAS TO HELP WITH HIS PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OTHER LAWYERS, AND HE IS ESPECIALLY OBLIGED TO HELP PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF LAW CLERKS IN LEGAL PROFESSION. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO GIVE LEGAL AID TO A CLIENT FOR WHICH HE KNOWS THAT IS NOT IN POSITION TO PAY FOR SERVICE, OR A CLIENT THAT IS ASSIGNED TO HIM ACCORDING TO THE SCHEDULE DETERMINED BY AUTHORIZED ORGAN OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, I.E. OTHER ORGANIZATION ACCORDING TO THE DECISION OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, AND THE BAR ASSOCIATION BEARS THE COSTS. IT IS NOT APPROPRIATE THAT A LAWYER IS A PERSON THAT ACTS AGAINST INTERESTS OF LEGAL PROFESSION AND WHO DOES NOT RESPECT RULES OF THIS CODE. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY AS WELL AS TAKING CARE ABOUT CONDUCT IN HIS PRIVATE LIFE, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO PROTECT RESPECT AND TO STRUGGLE FOR PROMOTION AND AFFIRMATION OF LEGAL PROFESSION AS AN INDEPENDENT PROFESSION. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ACT IN HUMAN WAY, RESPECTING DIGNITY OF ALL HE CONTACTS WITH. THEN, HE IS OBLIGED TO PRESERVE HIS HONOUR, MORAL CHARACTER, INDEPENDENCE AND EXPERTNESS IN ORDER TO STIMULATE OTHERS WITH HIS CONDUCT. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO RESPECT TRUTH AND LEGALITY, INDEPENDENCE OF LEGAL PROFESSION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ENERGETICALLY REJECT ALL TRIES OF INFLUENCE ON HIS INDEPENDENCE IN EXECUTION OF ACTIVITY. HE IS OBLIGED TO INFORM ORGANS OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION ABOUT THESE TRIES. EXECUTION OF ANY COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS, ASSOCIATION OF LAWYERS OFFICES WITH ACTIVITIES OF SUCH EFFECT, I.E. ACTIVITIES THAT DO NOT GIVE LEGAL AID ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH EXECUTION OF LAWYERS ACTIVITY. OBLIGATION OF A LAWYER IS TO BE CONSTANTLY UNDER PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT, TO READ PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE, PARTICIPATE IN ALL PROFESSIONAL DISCUSSIONS, CONSULTATIONS, AND CONGRESSES, IN ALL ACTIONS OF LEGAL PROFESSIONS BY WHICH IMPROVEMENT AND AFFIRMATION OF THIS SERVICE ARE ACHIEVED, AND TO IMPROVE HIS GENERAL EDUCATION. A LAWYER HAS TO HELP WITH HIS PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OTHER LAWYERS, AND HE IS ESPECIALLY OBLIGED TO HELP PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF LAW CLERKS IN LEGAL PROFESSION. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO GIVE LEGAL AID TO A CLIENT FOR WHICH HE KNOWS THAT IS NOT IN POSITION TO PAY FOR SERVICE, OR A CLIENT THAT IS ASSIGNED TO HIM ACCORDING TO THE SCHEDULE DETERMINED BY AUTHORIZED ORGAN OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, I.E. OTHER ORGANIZATION ACCORDING TO THE DECISION OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, AND THE BAR ASSOCIATION BEARS THE COSTS. IT IS NOT APPROPRIATE THAT A LAWYER IS A PERSON THAT ACTS AGAINST INTERESTS OF LEGAL PROFESSION AND WHO DOES NOT RESPECT RULES OF THIS CODE. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY AS WELL AS TAKING CARE ABOUT CONDUCT IN HIS PRIVATE LIFE, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO PROTECT RESPECT AND TO STRUGGLE FOR PROMOTION AND AFFIRMATION OF LEGAL PROFESSION AS AN INDEPENDENT PROFESSION. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ACT IN HUMAN WAY, RESPECTING DIGNITY OF ALL HE CONTACTS WITH. THEN, HE IS OBLIGED TO PRESERVE HIS HONOUR, MORAL CHARACTER, INDEPENDENCE AND EXPERTNESS IN ORDER TO STIMULATE OTHERS WITH HIS CONDUCT. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO RESPECT TRUTH AND LEGALITY, INDEPENDENCE OF LEGAL PROFESSION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ENERGETICALLY REJECT ALL TRIES OF INFLUENCE ON HIS INDEPENDENCE IN EXECUTION OF ACTIVITY. HE IS OBLIGED TO INFORM ORGANS OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION ABOUT THESE TRIES. EXECUTION OF ANY COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS, ASSOCIATION OFLAWYERS OFFICES WITH ACTIVITIES OF SUCH EFFECT, I.E. ACTIVITIES THAT DO NOT GIVE LEGAL AID ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH EXECUTION OF LAWYERS ACTIVITY. OBLIGATION OF A LAWYER IS TO BE CONSTANTLY UNDER PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT, TO READ PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE,PARTICIPATE IN ALL PROFESSIONAL DISCUSSIONS, CONSULTATIONS, AND CONGRESSES, IN ALL ACTIONS OF LEGAL PROFESSIONS BY WHICH IMPROVEMENT AND AFFIRMATION OF THIS SERVICE ARE ACHIEVED, AND TO IMPROVE HIS GENERAL EDUCATION. A LAWYER HAS TO HELP WITH HIS PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OTHER LAWYERS, AND HE IS ESPECIALLY OBLIGED TO HELP PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF LAW CLERKS IN LEGAL PROFESSION. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO GIVE LEGAL AID TO A CLIENT FOR WHICH HE KNOWS THAT IS NOT IN POSITION TO PAY FOR SERVICE, OR A CLIENT THAT IS ASSIGNED TO HIM ACCORDING TO THE SCHEDULE DETERMINED BY AUTHORIZED ORGAN OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, I.E. OTHER ORGANIZATION ACCORDING TO THE DECISION OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, AND THE BAR ASSOCIATION BEARS THE COSTS. IT IS NOT APPROPRIATE THAT A LAWYER IS A PERSON THAT ACTS AGAINST INTERESTS OF LEGAL PROFESSION AND WHO DOES NOT RESPECT RULES OF THIS CODE. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY AS WELL AS TAKING CARE ABOUT CONDUCT IN HIS PRIVATE LIFE, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO PROTECT RESPECT AND TO STRUGGLE FOR PROMOTION AND AFFIRMATION OF LEGAL PROFESSION AS AN INDEPENDENT PROFESSION. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ACT IN HUMAN WAY, RESPECTING DIGNITY OF ALL HE CONTACTS WITH. THEN, HE IS OBLIGED TO PRESERVE HIS HONOUR, MORAL CHARACTER, INDEPENDENCE AND EXPERTNESS IN ORDER TO STIMULATE OTHERS WITH HIS CONDUCT. WHEN EXECUTING LAWYERS ACTIVITY, A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO RESPECT TRUTH AND LEGALITY, INDEPENDENCE OF LEGAL PROFESSION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO ENERGETICALLY REJECT ALL TRIES OF INFLUENCE ON HIS INDEPENDENCE IN EXECUTION OF ACTIVITY. HE IS OBLIGED TO INFORM ORGANS OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION ABOUT THESE TRIES. EXECUTION OF ANY COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS, ASSOCIATION OF LAWYERS OFFICES WITH ACTIVITIES OF SUCH EFFECT, I.E. ACTIVITIES THAT DO NOT GIVE LEGAL AID ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH EXECUTION OF LAWYERS ACTIVITY. OBLIGATION OF A LAWYER IS TO BE CONSTANTLY UNDER PROFESSIONAL IMPROVEMENT, TO READ PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE, PARTICIPATE IN ALL PROFESSIONAL DISCUSSIONS, CONSULTATIONS, AND CONGRESSES, IN ALL ACTIONS OF LEGAL PROFESSIONS BY WHICH IMPROVEMENT AND AFFIRMATION OF THIS SERVICE ARE ACHIEVED, AND TO IMPROVE HIS GENERAL EDUCATION. A LAWYER HAS TO HELP WITH HIS PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OTHER LAWYERS, AND HE IS ESPECIALLY OBLIGED TO HELP PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF LAW CLERKS IN LEGAL PROFESSION. A LAWYER IS OBLIGED TO GIVE LEGAL AID TO A CLIENT FOR WHICH HE KNOWS THAT IS NOT IN POSITION TO PAY FOR SERVICE, OR A CLIENT THAT IS ASSIGNED TO HIM ACCORDING TO THE SCHEDULE DETERMINED BY AUTHORIZED ORGAN OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, I.E. OTHER ORGANIZATION ACCORDING TO THE DECISION OF THE BAR ASSOCIATION, AND THE BAR ASSOCIATION BEARS THE COSTS. IT IS NOT APPROPRIATE THAT A LAWYER IS A PERSON THAT ACTS AGAINST INTERESTS OF LEGAL PROFESSION AND WHO DOES NOT RESPECT RULES OF THIS CODE.

Das außerinsolvenzliche Restrukturierungsverfahren

Es handelt sich um ein neues Verfahren im Rahmen der Konkursgesetzgebung, eingeführt mit dem Änderungsgesetz über Finanzoperationen, Insolvenzverfahren und Zwangsauflösungen (ZFFPPIPP-F (neue Abteilung 2.3 bzw. neue Artikel 44.b bis 44.z). Von diesem Verfahren können Kapitalgesellschaften Gebrauch machen, die nach den Bestimmungen des Gesellschaftsgesetzbuches (ZGD-1) zu den mittleren oder großen Gesellschaften gehören und bei denen es erlaubt ist ein Vergleichsverfahren zu führen – die letzte Bedingung schließt also Banken, Versicherungen u.Ä. aus. Im Vergleich zu den Insolvenzverfahren und den Vergleichsverfahren, die eingeführt werden wenn der Schuldner schon insolvent ist, kann das außerinsolvenzliche Restrukturierungsverfahren eingeführt werden, wenn der Schuldner zum Zeitpunkt der Einführung noch nicht insolvent ist, es aber wahrscheinlich ist, dass er innerhalb eines Jahres zahlungsunfähig wird.

Der Zweck des außerinsolvenzlichen Restrukturierungsverfahrens ist mit den Gläubigern, die die Inhaber von Finanzforderungen sind (sie entstanden aufgrund eines Kreditvertrags, Vertrages über die Ausstellung einer Bankgarantie, Finanzierungsleasings, Darlehensvertrages, Bürgschaft usw.) gegenüber dem Schuldner, eine Abmachung über die finanzielle Restrukturierung zu treffen aufgrund welcher sich die finanziellen Forderungen verringern und/oder ihre Fälligkeit aufgeschoben wird und/oder sich der Zinssatz verändert.

Der berechtigte Antragsteller für den Beginn des Verfahrens ist nur der Schuldner, ein Antrag ist aber nicht möglich, wenn er vor dem Ablauf von zwei Jahren seit dem Tag, als über dem Schuldner rechtswirksam das vorige außerinsolvenzliche Restrukturierungsverfahren abgeschlossen wurde, gestellt wurde oder wenn beim Schuldner das Vergleichsverfahren eingeleitet wurde, das noch nicht beendet ist oder wenn der Antrag vor dem Ablauf von zwei Jahren gestellt wurde, als der Schuldner alle seine Pflichten aus dem vorigen rechtswirksam bestätigten Vergleichsverfahren erfüllte, oder wenn ein Insolvenzverfahren für den Schuldner eröffnet wurde. Diese Beschränkungen (außer die Letzte) gelten nicht, wenn trotz den Hindernissen 75% der Gläubiger (angesichts der Summe ihrer Forderungen im Bezug auf die insgesamt ausstehende Finanzforderung) mit der Einleitung des Verfahrens einverstanden sind.

Das Verfahren wird formell Über das Gericht geleitet, das die Prozessentscheidungen ausstellt und sie veröffentlicht, der Schwerpunkt des Verfahrens liegt aber beim Schuldner, der mit den Gläubigern solche Verhandlungen führen muss, die real zum Schließen einer Abmachung über die finanzielle Restrukturierung führen. Diese Abmachung tretet in Kraft, wenn sie von dem Schuldner, den Gläubigern, deren Gesamtsumme der gewöhnlichen Finanzforderungen aus der Grundliste der Finanzforderungen mindestens 75% beträgt und den Gläubigern, deren Gesamtsumme der gesicherten Finanzforderungen aus der Grundliste der Finanzforderungen mindestens 75% beträgt, unterzeichnet wird.

Es lässt sich schließen, dass das außerinsolvenzliche Restrukturierungsverfahren für bestimmte Schuldner eine neue Chance bietet, wie sie die Insolvenz vorbeugen können, aber dafür ist vor allem die Zusammenarbeit mit den Banken und anderen Finanzinstitutionen notwendig.